- Egyptian red jasper and carnelian seed head necklace

Egyptian red jasper and carnelian seed head necklace

New Kingdom. 18th Dynasty,1540-1295 BC

Provenance:
Private collection Belgium, acquired 1970s

Literature:
A similar necklace can be seen in the collection of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, the gift of Mrs Goddard Dubois (acquisition number 46.1459). An example made of yellow faience was included in the centenary exhibition, 'In the Light of Amarna. 100 Years of the Nefertiti Discovery' Berlin, 2013, cat. no. 35. Drawings made by Burchardt at the time of its discovery show that such necklaces were indeed originally strung in this way. For a discussion of the symbolism and amuletic properties see Carol Andrews, 'Amulets of Ancient Egypt', British Museum, 1994, pl.65n.

Description:
Necklace formed of forty nine seed head beads of carnelian and red jasper alternating with small red glass spacer beads. The latter ancient but possibly of a later date. Restrung and with modern clasp.

This form of bead has been variously interpreted as seed heads of the poppy (associated with the opium used in the ancient world as a painkiller or to aid sleep and, therefore, promoting good health); the lotus (a potent symbol of rebirth) or the pomegranate (with fertility implications).

Length: 43 cm

  - Pair of Egyptian eye inlays

Pair of Egyptian eye inlays

Late Dynastic Period. 25th-31st Dynasty, 715-332 BC

Provenance:
Collection of Christopher Terry, Cumbria, acquired 1970s - 80s

Literature:
For a similar example, complete with inlays, see a pair of eyes in the Michael C. Carlos Museum, Atlanta, as illustrated in P. Lacovara and B Teasley Trope (eds.), 'The Realm of Osiris: Mummies, Coffins, and Ancient Egyptian Funerary Art in the Michael C. Carlos Museum', Atlanta, 2001, p. 33.

Description:
The elegant narrow eyes, with extended cosmetic lines set with their bronze pupils intact, the whites would most likely have been represented with inlaid stone. The eyes would originally have been inlaid into a sarcophagus mask or life sized statue to give a more lifelike appearance.

Length of each: 10.6 cm

  - Egyptian gilt-bronze aegis with head of Isis

Egyptian gilt-bronze aegis with head of Isis

Late Dynastic Period. 26th Dynasty, 662-525 BC

Provenance:
Collection of Mrs Elias-Vaes (1908-2002), The Netherlands, acquired in the 1960s or early 1970s; With Rupert Wace Ancient Art; Private Collection, London, acquired 2012

Literature:
Published: Rupert Wace Ancient Art, 2012, no. 14.

A parallel, though lacking the horns and sun disc, is illustrated in Werner Kaiser, 'Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin' (Berlin, 1967) no. 821-2. For a related example see Madeleine Page-Gasser and Andre Weise, with Thomas Schneider and Sylvia Winterhalter, 'Égypte, Moments d'éternité. Art égyptien dans les collections privées, Suisse' (Mainz, 1998) pp. 256-259, no. 171B.

Description:
The head of the goddess is shown above a broad decorated collar with winged scarab pectoral. She wears a striated tripartite wig, headdress with diadem of uraei and frontal uraeus crowned with the sun disc and cow's horns, the whole surmounted by a separately cast sun-disc and cow's horns (one horn tip broken). Traces of gilding survive on the face and the eyes are inlaid with stone.

Height: 19.5 cm

  - Egyptian limestone hand

Egyptian limestone hand

Ptolemaic Period. 332-30 BC

Provenance:
Private collection, France, acquired 1980s

Literature:
A model of a fist in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art (acc. no. 66.99.74) is intended to be complete but depicts its subject in a partial or unfinished way. Another example of a hand lain flat in the same position is on display in the Cairo Museum.

For the positioning of the hand if taken from a naophrous stature see Lawrence M. Berman, with Kenneth J. Bohac, Patricia S. Griffin and Bruce Christman, 'The Cleveland Museum of Art; Catalogue of Egyptian Art' (Cleveland, 1999) pp. 422-423, no.316.

Description:
The right hand, with long slender fingers, modelled to just above the wrist, lying flat on an integral brick shaped base, the block built up on the right hand side abutting the hand.

It has been suggested that this may be a fragment from a naophorous statue (a figure, standing or kneeling, holding a naos or shrine in their lap) or a complete work, a sculptor's model. Scholarship is still divided on the exact use or meaning of complete carvings of body parts which may be an 'ex voto' or sculptor's 'trial piece'. The proliferation of the type coinciding with a time of great temple building, however, suggests a votive purpose as such building programmes will have encouraged donations.

Length: 18.3 cm Height: 9.4 cm Depth: 8cm

  - Egyptian stucco profile head of a young man

Egyptian stucco profile head of a young man

Ptolemaic Period. 4th-2nd century BC

Provenance:
Collection of Michel E. Abemayor, New York; Sold Sotheby's, New York, December 11th, 1976, lot 295; Private collection, USA acquired at the 1976 auction

Literature:
Published: Sotheby's, New York, December 11th, 1976, lot 295 (illus.) and 'Cleopatra's Egypt. Age of the Ptolemies', Brooklyn, 1988, p.129, cat. 34.

Description:
Possibly a portrait study of Ptolemy II (Philadelphus), the left profile is depicted with elongated almond shaped eyes below arched eyebrows, the mouth curves upwards in a gentle smile. A line extending across the forehead and down the temple representing a headdress or wig.

The purpose of these types of sculptures has long been argued, with suggestions of them being either sculptors' models or votive plaques, or even both. This piece has clearly been intentionally crafted as a fragment and current thinking suggests it to be either an ex-voto to the cult of a king or a commemorative monument in a private shrine devoted to a ruler.

Dimensions: 25.4 cm x 18.4 cm x 6 cm

  - Egyptian faience ushabti for Pakhaas born of Tachedidi

Egyptian faience ushabti for Pakhaas born of Tachedidi

Late Dynastic Period. 30th Dynasty, 380-343 BC

Provenance:
Private Collection of Charles Bouché (1928-2010), France

Literature:
For details of these shabtis see Jacques F Aubert & Liliane Aubert, in 'Statuettes Égyptiennes, Chaouabtis, Ouchebtis', Paris, 1974, p.253. Examples can be found in many museums including Bonn, Cairo and The Vatican.

Description:
Portrayed typically mummiform, standing on a small integral trapezoidal base, wearing a striated tripartite wig and braided false beard. His arms crossed right over left with the hands protruding from a close-fitting shroud, the left holding a pick and the right holding a hoe and the cord to a seed bag, incised imitating woven straw or rush, suspended over the left shoulder, the implements depicted in raised relief. Nine rows of hieroglyphs giving the name, General Pakhaas, born of Tachedidi and including lines from Chapter six of the Book of the Dead, are incised below the arms. The dorsal column plain.

Height: 21 cm

  - Greek gold ring, perhaps depicting Nike Apteros

Greek gold ring, perhaps depicting Nike Apteros

Hellenistic. 4th century BC

Provenance:
Collection of the Forbeses of Pitsligo, Scotland

One of the Forbeses brought the ring back to Fettercairn House when he returned from a Grand Tour in the late 18th/early 19th century

Literature:

Description:
The stirrup-shaped ring with broad hoop semi-circular in section and flat circular bezel is engraved in intaglio with the figure of a draped maiden standing in left profile within a hatched border. Shown wearing a belted chiton, with a ribbon tied around her left wrist, and her hair pulled back in a so-called 'melon-coiffure', she leans against a column whilst offering a wreath in her outstretched right hand.

It is possible that this is a depiction of Nike Apteros, or wingless Nike, whose statue stood in the Temple of Nike on the Acropolis in Athens as a symbol of her permanent presence in the city - and hence also of Athens' continued military prominence. However, although the goddess is typically shown holding a victory wreath, such an identification cannot be certain here. It is just as likely that this is a mortal woman and that the ambiguity of goddess and maiden was deliberate, perhaps referencing victory in love rather than in battle.

Ring size: I

  - Greek black-figure Kylix with boar and bull, attributed to the Centaur Painter

Greek black-figure Kylix with boar and bull, attributed to the Centaur Painter

Attic. 540-530 BC

Provenance:
Private collection (P. F-C.), Lugano, Switzerland, acquired 1960, and thence by descent

Literature:
A twin to this cup in the J.L. Theodor collection has been published twice: P. Heesen, 'The J.L. Theodor Collection of Attic Black-figure Vases', 1996, 146-148, no. 35, and Heesen, 'Athenian Little-Master Cups', 2011, no. 566, pl. 145b-c.

A comparable lip-cup attributed to the Centaur Painter, depicting a wounded bull, was sold at Christie's London, 3rd July 1996, Lot 42 for £10,000.

Description:
A black-figure kylix or lip-cup, the lip characteristically off set from the lower bowl with distinct ridge. Slender loop handles attached to the bowl, the foot with high stem and wide base. The edge of the base reserved, also a reserved line at the inner rim and the interior black with reserved central tondo with two rings and a dot. The exterior decorated only with two animals painted centrally on either side, a boar and a bull each walking calmly forward towards each other on the opposing sides.

Though the Centaur Painter is known for his lively scenes, hunts and pursuits he also, as in this example, depicted quieter scenes of animals grazing or slowly moving forward. This cup dates from the middle period of his career (540-530 BC), in which he made his most refined work. He was both potter and painter of (usually small) cups. Pieter Heesen believes he entered the workshop of Nearchos and his sons Tleson and Ergoteles around 540 BC, possibly as a replacement of Ergoteles, who may have become unable to continue working or may even have died young, although another explanation is possible: It cannot be excluded that Ergoteles, who started as potter only, continued as the potter-painter who is now known as the Centaur Painter.

Known as little master cups, a term referring to the miniature nature of the painting, this type of drinking vessel was made in Athens in the 6th century BC. The delicacy of their minimal decoration makes them particularly appealing.

Condition: Intact. Crack from rim to lower bowl consolidated and secured.

This comes with a thermoluminescence test report from Oxford Authentication confirming its antiquity.

Diameter of bowl: 13.9 cm Height: 9.9 cm. Width (including handles): 20.8 cm

  - Roman marble portrait head of a woman

Roman marble portrait head of a woman

mid 3rd century AD

Provenance:
Private collection, France, acquired 19th Century (consistent with Carrara marble socle, nose and chin drilled for restoration, and overall patina)

Literature:
Compare a silver coin of Herennia Etruscilla and a gold coin of Salonina both in the British Museum (acc. nos G.2388 and 1867,0101.824). A very similar marble bust is in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek in Copenhagen, inv. no. I.N. 1493; see F. Johansen, Catalogue Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek. Roman Portraits, vol. 3, 1995, p. 130-131, no. 54).

Description:
Of middle age, her centrally parted hair pulled back behind the ears and folded into a flat vertical bun at the nape of the neck that is lifted up and fixed on the crown of the head. She turns her gaze slightly to the right, her eyes with incised irises and drilled pupils, her arched brows meeting above her nose, her lips pursed in a faint smile.

The distinctive hairstyle is similar to that worn by Herennia Etruscilla, wife of emperor Trajanus Decius (r. AD 249-251), and Salonina, wife of emperor Gallienus (r. AD 253-268).

Condition: White marble with yellowish-brown patina overall; loss to nose, lips and chin, small area of loss above right temple, and lower right corner of hair; diagonal break to neck. Drilled perforations in chin and nose indicating historic restoration.

Height: 20 cm

  - Roman marble figure of a woman

Roman marble figure of a woman

c. 1st-2nd century AD

Provenance:
With Jean-Philippe Mariaud de Serres, Paris, 1980s; Private collection, Los Angeles, acquired from the above prior 1989

Literature:
Published: 'Grange Style', House and Garden, July 1989, p. 104.

Comparatives: See for example a Roman marble statuette of the goddess Hygeia in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts (acc. no. 1974.131), and a draped torso from a Roman portrait statue in the British Museum (acc. no. 1854,0509.1).

Description:
Perhaps depicting a goddess, shown standing with her weight on her left leg and her right slightly bent at the knee, wearing a long pleated chiton and himation draped over her left shoulder, which then cascades over the front of her torso and down the left side of her body. Her breast and right shoulder is thinly veiled by a delicate undergarment, the folds of which are carefully and convincingly carved. She perhaps held an attribute in her now-missing left hand.

It is tempting to see this as a representation of Aphrodite: the suggestively-thin drapery across the chest that hints at nude flesh would be appropriate here. However, other female deities dress like this, too, as do Roman women, and in the absence of an attribute, it is impossible to know if this is a representation of a mortal or immortal woman, and if a goddess, which one. See for example a Roman marble statuette of the goddess Hygeia in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts (acc. no. 1974.131), and a draped torso from a Roman portrait statue in the British Museum (acc. no. 1854,0509.1).

Height: 56 cm (53cm excluding base)

  - Roman bronze protome of a boar

Roman bronze protome of a boar

2nd century AD

Provenance:
Private collection (R.M.) UK, acquired prior to 1970

Literature:
Published: Rupert Wace Ancient Art, 2017, no. 50.

Animals of this type were used in a variety of forms as vessel fitments. See, for example, a handle in the form of a boar from the collection of Naji Asfar, illustrated in Debra Noel Adams, Emma C. Bunker, Trudy Kawami, Robert Morkot, Dalia Tawil, 'When Orpheus Sang' (Paris, 2004), p.191, no.198.

Description:
The vessel fitment cast as the forepart of a boar. Realistically modelled, the animal appears to leap forward with front legs outstretched (now broken at the knee joint). A crest of thick bristles runs down the neck, a long mane of hair covering the shoulders and a 'beard' of bristles sweeping away from the face. Eyes hollowed for inlay beneath sharp brows. Large hairy ears are pricked alertly, one pierced at the top, the other missing its, no doubt similarly pierced, tip. The apparently snarling tusked mouth open to serve as a spout. The body finished with a flattened plate for attachment to a vessel.

Boars, rams and bulls formed the triad of animals sacrificed to Mars by the state in the suovetaurilia ceremony to bless and purify the land. Wild boar were also offered to Artemis, the goddess of the hunt and were a sought after culinary luxury in the Roman world.

Length: 7.2 cm

  - Romano-British gilt-bronze boar attachment

Romano-British gilt-bronze boar attachment

1st century AD

Provenance:
Private collection Germany, acquired prior to 1990

Literature:
Published: Rupert Wace Ancient Art, 2017, no. 38.

A less-detailed bronze boar attachment was found in Eastcheap, London (Museum of London, inv. no. A2403); another in the British Museum shows similar modelling of the animal's face (acc. no. 1814,0704.290). For discussion of the type, see J. Foster, 'Bronze Boar Figurines in Iron Age and Roman Britain', BAR Brit. Ser. 39, Oxford, 1977, pp. 21 and 32-33, nos. 16-18, fig. 11, pls. 10-11.

Description:
In the form of the head and foreparts of a boar, a solid ridge of bristles running along the spine, the front legs with cloven hooves, the head with ears erect, incised almond-shaped eyes and opened mouth with two large tusks to either side, a round hole passing through the snout behind the tusks fitted with a wire ring.

Small attachments such as this were probably fitted to the rims of drinking vessels made of metal or wood and are typically found at Roman sites.

Height: 4 cm

  - Greek black-figure neck amphora attributed to the Euphiletos painter

Greek black-figure neck amphora attributed to the Euphiletos painter

Attic. c.550-500 BC

Provenance:
Private collection (PC), Nuremberg, Germany, acquired in the 1920s or 30s and thence by descent; Private collection (KL), London

Literature:
Another example of the Euphiletos painter depicting a Dionysiac scene is shown in J. Boardman, 'Athenian Black Figure Vases', (1974), no. 222. This painter is, however, best known for his Panathenaic amphorae, large vessels made to contain the olive oil given as prizes in the Panathenaic Games and decorated with suitable sporting scenes. An example of this type in the Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Munich (accession no. 1452) also depicts a chariot, but in this case it races at full speed.

Description:
The amphora, with clearly defined neck and distinct shoulder, is decorated on one side with a quadriga, the chariot of the gods. A female goddess drives the four horses harnessed characteristically abreast. She stands in the carriage holding the reins and whip. Apollo stands on the ground beside her and a second goddess faces them. The B side shows Dionysos holding vine branches facing a maenad, the figures flanked by two satyrs with long tails.

The lid, contemporary but probably not original to this vase, decorated with concentric circles of black glaze with rounded knob.

The individual decorative registers in the bottom section – encircling rays, lotus buds and meander pattern – are separated by 3 lines. This is a feature often associated with the “Three Line Group” but in this case is indicative only of the vase type as the quality of the painting far exceeds the known examples of this group. The vase can be attributed to Euphiletos, the renowned Attic black-figure painter active in the second half of the 6th century BC.

Condition:
Recomposed from original fragments, small losses restored.
This comes with a thermoluminescence test report from Oxford Authentication confirming its antiquity.

Height: 40.5 cm. Including lid 45cm

  - Roman emerald and gold necklace

Roman emerald and gold necklace

2nd-3rd Century AD

Provenance:
With Peter Sharrer, New York USA; Private collection UK, acquired 1981

Literature:
An example of this type of Roman necklace combining fine gold links interspersed with beads of precious stones in the collection of the Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia, Rome is illustrated in Susan Weber Soros and Stefanie Walker (eds), 'Castellani and Italian Archaeological Jewelry', Yale University Press, 2004, p.144, cat no. 112. A necklace with very similar emerald beads and gold links of slightly different form is in the collection of the British Museum (acquisition no. 1872, 0604.669), illustrated in Lois Sherr Dubin, 'The History of Beads, from 30,000 BC to the Present', New York, 1987, p. 54.

Description:
Composed of seventeen polished emerald crystals of varying cross section, interspersed with cut-out gold figure of eight links. Fastened with a hook and domed boss clasp.

The practice of linking beads rather than stringing them together derived from the Hellenistic period. A similar form of necklace continued into the Byzantine era.

Length: 35 cm

  - Tanagra terracotta draped female figure

Tanagra terracotta draped female figure

Hellenistic. c. 3rd century BC

Provenance:
Collection of Michael Walz, UK, acquired late 1960s-70s

Literature:
Named for the cemetery in Boeotia where they were first identified, it has been suggested these Tanagra figures may have been inspired by theatrical productions where women played on the stage. Alternatively, they have been thought to portray ladies of fashion. For the type and a discussion see Robert S. Bianchi et al, 'Cleopatra's Egypt. Age of the Ptolemies' (Brooklyn, 1988) pp. 220-221, cats. 112-114.

Description:
The figure stands in typically relaxed pose with left leg slightly forward, her weight into her right hip which pushes forward. Depicted wearing a chiton and himation wrapped tightly around her, hands hidden beneath the folds, the cloak draped over her extended left arm her right hand resting on her hip. Her centrally parted hair swept up into a bow knot and back, to be tied in chignon. A circular vent hole between the shoulders.

This comes with a thermoluminescence test report from Oxford Authentication confirming its antiquity.

Height: 17 cm

  - Roman glass jug

Roman glass jug

1st - 2nd century AD

Provenance:
With Galerie Jürgen Haering, Freiburg, since the late 1970s

Literature:
See C. S. Lightfoot, 'Ancient Glass in National Museums Scotland' (Edinburgh, 2007) p. 81, no.173 and p.82, no.176 for similar examples.

Description:
The squat bulbous body slumped towards the broad base, flat with small central indent and traces of the pontil mark on the underside. The slightly bulging cylindrical neck with indent around the base. A collared rim with outward horizontal lip and flat upper surface. A single broad strap handle with three trailing pads at the edges applied to the shoulder and drawn up, turned in at an acute angle and trailed upwards under the lip. Of transparent pale blue-green glass.

Height: 13.5 cm

  - Bronze brooch in form of a sandal-sole

Bronze brooch in form of a sandal-sole

Romano-British. c. 2nd century AD

Provenance:
Collection of John Hayward, UK

Literature:

Description:
An uncommon type of sandal-sole brooch of symmetrical form with pointed toe. Inlaid with blue enamel, 5 dots of yellow enamel inserted to represent hobnails. The hinged pin now lost. With hanging loop at the heel.

Length: 4 cm

  - Danish flint dagger

Danish flint dagger

Neolithic. c. 2000-1800 BC

Provenance:
Private collection Denmark

Literature:
For similar examples see 'Antiquities from Europe and the Near East in the Collection of the Lord McAlpine of West Green' (Oxford, 1987) nos. 4.216-4.2167, p. 80. For an example in Norwich, see Steven Hooper, (Ed), 'Robert and Lisa Sainsbury Collection, Vol. III, Precolumbian, Asian, Egyptian and European Antiquities' (Yale, 1997) pp. 413-414.

Description:
The broad leaf-shaped blade, the tip blunted in antiquity, the grip of lentoid section with a slightly flaring fishtail butt. The mottled grey flint unpolished.

The transition from a Neolithic to a Bronze Age culture was not a sudden and instantaneous pan-European process. In Scandinavia and other areas where ore was limited the passage was slower, and long after bronze had appeared in other areas the use of flint continued with forms often based on metal prototypes as in this example.

Length: 22.5 cm

  - Byzantine glass mosaic panel

Byzantine glass mosaic panel

6th century AD

Provenance:
G. Sangiorgi Collection (1886-1960), Rome, acquired late 19th-early 20th century and thence by descent; Sold Christie's, New York, 3 June 1999, lot 225; Property of a Private Foundation

Giorgio Sangiorgi (1886-1960) was a collector and antiquities dealer with a gallery at Palazzo Borghese at 117, via Ripetta in Rome. Born in Messina, Sangiorgi assembled most of his collection in the late nineteenth century. An exhibition of his ancient textiles was held at the Castel Sant’Angelo in Rome in 1911, and his ancient glass collection was published in 1914. Many of his pieces were subsequently acquired by private collectors and museums.

Literature:

Description:
Formed of large triangular red glass tesserae, transitioning from deep purple at the bottom of the panel to terracotta-red at the top, interspersed with small triangular blue glass tesserae alternately framed with either white or gold glass tesserae.

Condition:
Old break across top right corner (running diagonally from eighth red tesserae from left) repaired using original tesserae taken from the top of panel to form a complete rectangle. Diagonal crack across bottom right corner (from eighth purple-red tesserae from left). Set into plaster.

Dimensions: 16.5 x 12.5 cm

  - Pair of Byzantine silver spoons

Pair of Byzantine silver spoons

Early Byzantine. c. 550-650 AD

Provenance:
Sold Christie's, London, 2 December 1991, lot 184; Sold Christie’s, London, 28 April 2004, lot 277; Property of a Private Foundation

Literature:
The spoons are near identical to those recovered from the Lampsacus Treasure now in the British Museum (see, for example, acc. no. 1848,0601.7). A near identical pair from the collection of Comtesse de Behague were also sold at Sotheby's Monaco, 5 December 1987, lot 128.

Description:
Each with a pear-shaped bowl engraved on the back with a symmetrical palm-frond design attached with a vertical disc to the slender baluster-moulded handle, each of which is hexagonal in section nearest the bowl and then round, terminating in a small ball finial.

These spoons with their distinctive drop between bowl and handle belong to the largest and penultimate type of Roman cochlearia, many of which have a leaf design on the underside of the bowl. A number of early Byzantine silver hoards containing sets of similar spoons have been recovered in Greece and Turkey, including the Kerynia Treasure, found in Cyprus, which included thirty-six silver spoons, and the Lampsacus Treasure, discovered at Lapseki in Turkey, which contains thirteen spoons.

Length: 26 cm

  - South Arabian alabaster head of a woman

South Arabian alabaster head of a woman

c. 1st Century BC - 1st century AD

Provenance:
From the Collection of the late Ralph Hinshelwood Daly OBE (1924-2006), acquired prior to 1967.
In 1955 Daly joined the Colonial Service and was posted to the Aden Protectorates that today form the Republic of Yemen. It was here that he met and married his wife Elizabeth Anne Daly (née Fenton Wells) and acquired the collection of alabaster sculptures. In 1967 the Aden Protectorates became independent from Britain, and Ralph, awarded an OBE for his work, retired from the Colonial Service and returned with Elizabeth to Europe, taking their collection of alabasters with them.

Literature:
For a similar example, nicknamed 'Miriam' by the workman at the time of discovery, see St. J. Simpson (ed.), 'Queen of Sheba, Treasures of Ancient Yemen', London, 2002, pp. 194-195, no. 270. This head retains the plaster hair.

Description:
Height: 29.6 cm (inc. base)

The head with long tapering neck and shield shaped face. Thin arching brows above almond-shaped eyes inlaid with white stone, the pupils originally of glass or lapis (mostly missing). Her long straight nose above a narrow mouth. Her roughly chiselled hair seemingly tucked behind small, protruding ears. This rough finish to the hair and top of the head may have allowed the figure to be finished with the addition of plaster or stucco. The alabaster base, if not original, is certainly ancient. The stepped form is more usually associated with altars but it may have been reused.

This form of head is associated with the kingdom of Qataban which, together with Ma’in, Saba, Himyar, and Hadhramaut, was one of the five kingdoms of southern Arabia. Pliny the Elder recorded that Timna, the capital of this ancient kingdom was a busy metropolis housing no less than 65 temple complexes. Its wealth was based on its monopoly of the ancient cinnamon and incense trade routes. The area was first excavated in the 1950s by the American archaeologist Wendell Phillips, (W. Phillips, 'Qataban and Sheba: Exploring the ancient kingdoms on the Biblical spice routes of Arabia', London, 1955).

  - Egyptian bronze bolti fish

Egyptian bronze bolti fish

Late Dynastic Period. 26th-31st Dynasty, 664-332 BC

Provenance:
The Kevorkian Foundation, USA prior to 1970; Collection of Molly and Leon Lyon, USA acquired 1970s and thence by descent

Literature:
A similar example from Berlin is illustrated in G. Roeder, 'Mitteilungen aus der Ägyptischen Sammlung. Band VI. Ägyptische Bronzefiguren' (Berlin, 1956), pl.58, no. 8306. A mounted pair showing possible base type is reproduced in plate 61. Another very similar example is included in Hermann Schloegl, 'Geschenk des Nils, Ägyptische Kunstwerk aus Schweizer Besitz', Basel, 1978, no. 335 and lso Sue D'Auria, Peter Lacovara and Catherine Roehrig, 'Mummies & Magic - The Funerary Arts of Ancient Egypt', Boston, 1988, no.208.

Description:
The fish modelled in the round, details of scales, fins, eyes, nose and mouth incised. A tang for attachment below the belly.

The Bolti fish, or tilapia nilotica, was an important food source for the Egyptians and cosmetic vessels and lamps in the form of this freshwater fish can be found from many different periods. This statuette, however, was intended as a votive and would probably have been mounted on a bronze base possibly in the form of a sarcophagus.

Condition: Extreme tips of tail and dorsal fin broken.

Length: 9.3 cm

  - Byzantine gold and garnet ring

Byzantine gold and garnet ring

4th-6th century AD

Provenance:
Sold Gorny & Mosch, Auction 150, 11 July 2006, lot 188; Property of a Private Foundation

Literature:
For discussion of the type and parallels, see J. Spier, Byzantium and the West: Jewelry in the First Millennium, London, 2012, pp. 62-65.

Description:
The flat gold band decorated with six cabuchon garnets, each within a circular gold cell.

The fashion for setting gems in cells like this begins in the third century AD and becomes increasingly popular until the sixth or seventh century. Several examples of this type are known, set either with garnets or with emeralds.

Diameter of band: 2 cm. Ring size: N

  - Anatolian carnelian ram or goat's head amulet

Anatolian carnelian ram or goat's head amulet

Early 3rd millennium BC

Provenance:
Trampitsch collection, Paris

Literature:

Description:
Width: 4.8 cm

The pendant carved from an attractive translucent pink stone, possibly carnelian, in the form of a stylised head of a ram or goat. The triangular head with domed forehead, nostrils and almond shaped eyes incised. The curved horns extend horizontally, the fronts with etched lines to indicate tight spiralling. The back of the head hollowed with vertical hole at the top between the horns to allow for suspension.

  - Phoenician glass head bead

Phoenician glass head bead

Carthaginian. c. 5th-4th century BC

Provenance:
Collection of Eberhardt Voigt (1920-1983) Germany, acquired 1960s – early 1970s and thence by descent

Literature:
For the distinctive colouring and style, compare a Carthaginian pendant of slightly later date in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (acc. no. 17.194.735).

Description:
Rod-formed, the face is of yellow opaque glass above a square blue beard, with circular blue and white eyes, yellow lips, and a twisted band of blue glass across the forehead indicating the hair, a small ridged suspension loop above.

Height: 3.2 cm

  - Prehistoric flint hammer stone

Prehistoric flint hammer stone

3500 - 800 BC

Provenance:
Collection of Professor Sir Lucas White King (1856-1925), Dublin and London; Richardson Collection, UK
Bearing original collection label stating: 'Neolithic Hammer or Quern Stone. Ex County Down Ireland, from Prof Sir Lucas White King's Collection'

Literature:
A similar example was found in Norfolk and recorded by the Portable Antiquities Scheme.

Description:
A regularly shaped spherical hammerstone, the surface covered with fine percussion scars.

Diameter: 7 cm

  - Hellenistic bronze stool

Hellenistic bronze stool

c. 4th-3rd century BC

Provenance:
UK collection acquired 1970s to 1990s; Property of a Private Foundation, acquired from the above 2003

Literature:
A silver diphros of very similar design was found inside the 4th-century BC Macedonian tomb Agios Athanasios I at Stavroupolis, Thessaloniki (Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki, inv. no. ΜΘ 7440); see D. Andrianou, 'The Furniture and Furnishings of Ancient Greek Houses and Tombs', Cambridge, 2009, pp. 28-29, no. 6 and p. 158, n. 20 for further discussion and parallels. We can also compare the stool shown on the 4th century BC stele of Polyxena in Athens (National Museum, inv. no. 723) where the tops of the turned legs clearly protrude above the seat, a feature seemingly intended to keep the cushion in place; see G. M. A. Richter, 'The Furniture of the Greeks, Etruscans, and Romans', London, 1966, pp. 40-41.
For evidence of possible Near Eastern influence see H. Kyrieleis, 'Throne und Klinen: Studien zur Formgeschichte altorientalischer und griechischer Sitz- und Liegemobel vorhellenistischer Zeit' (Berlin, 1969), 40-41

Description:
Of rectangular form, with four cylindrical legs tapering to a circular profiled foot, each decorated with three turned bands, the tops of the legs protruding above the seat frame to form four circular bosses, a horizontal stretcher across the two short sides, also with a central turned band, each terminating at the leg in two curved attachment plates with chequered border, a rectangular space for the insertion of a woven seat.

Four-legged stools - or diphroi - of this type are known from numerous representations on Greek vases and reliefs and are also well-described in the ancient literature. A number of metal examples in silver and iron have been excavated from Hellenistic and Roman period tombs in Macedonia and Thrace, where they formed part of the funerary furniture buried with the dead; these diphroi were often used to support a vessel containing the ashes of the deceased or else for the placement of smaller offerings within the tomb.

The size of this example suggests it may have been used as a foot-stool, perhaps specifically for mounting and dismounting a horse. Domestic Greek stools were typically made of wood, sometimes with solid metal feet. Solid metal stools are unusual, suggesting ceremonial or perhaps royal use. It also points to Near Eastern influence.

Height: 35.9 cm Width: 29.5 cm Depth: 20.5 cm

  - Egyptian woven basket containing three desiccated fruits of the Dom palm

Egyptian woven basket containing three desiccated fruits of the Dom palm

New Kingdom. 18th-20th Dynasty, 1540-1069 BC

Provenance:
Gatineau collection, France, acquired prior 1903; with Charles Ede, London, 2004; with Rupert Wace Ancient Art, London, 2008; Property of a Private Foundation

Literature:
Another basket of fruits found in a tomb-chapel in the Theban Necropolis commemorating Nebamun (c. 1350 BC), a middle-ranking official scribe and grain counter is now in the collection of the British Museum (acc. no. EA5395). See also S. Schoske, B. Kreissl, R. Germer, 'Anch, Blumen für das Leben: Pflanzen im alten Ägypten', Munich, 1992, p. 235, no. 167. On the use of dom-palm fruit in pharaonic Egypt, see M. A. Murray, 'Fruits, Vegetables, Pulses and Condiments' in P. T. Nicholson and I. Shaw, 'Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology', Cambridge, 2000, pp. 620-621.

Description:
The elliptical basket is constructed of coiled palm fibres woven together with a decorative striped pattern, and contains three desiccated dom palm fruits.

Baskets filled with the preserved fruit of the dom palm have been recovered from a number of different sites in Egypt, including eight discovered in the tomb of Tutankhamun.

The Egyptians often used the fruit to spice their cakes, giving them a gingerbread flavour.

Length: 29.2 cm; width: 17.5 cm

  - Anatolian pottery vessel

Anatolian pottery vessel

Hacilar Region, Middle Chalcolithic, c. 5000 BC

Provenance:
Collection of Elsa Bloch-Diener, Bern, acquired 1970s

Literature:
For the shape, compare a similar vessel sold Christie’s, New York, 11 December 2003, lot 95 (price realised $23,900). See also an example in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (accession number 64.286.5).

Description:
Of biconical form, with slightly pointed shoulders, straight cylindrical neck and circular rim. Painted on the neck and shoulders in burnished red with bold zigzagging stripes and triangles, the rounded base left bare.

Condition:
Two cracks from rim to mid belly secured and filled. Small area of restoration to rim.

This comes with a thermoluminescence test report from Oxford Authentication confirming its antiquity.

Hacilar was a prehistoric settlement in Southwest Turkey, the earliest periods of occupation dating to the early 8th millennium BC. Excavation of this important site took place in the late 1950s under the direction of James Mellaart, the eminent British archaeologist responsible for the discovery of Çatalhöyük. His work at the site revealed similar decoration in the houses to that seen on these characteristic vessels; geometric patterns in red, often burnished, paint on a cream slip.

Height: 15 cm

  - A group of five Anatolian terracotta bulls

A group of five Anatolian terracotta bulls

3rd millennium BC

Provenance:
Private collection Switzerland, acquired 1980s-1990s

Literature:

Description:
Of simple, stylised form, with white slip over all. Each bull with heavy-set body, short splayed legs, and stumpy tail, the broad triangular head with blunt, downwards facing muzzle and thick outsplayed horns demarcated from the face with two incised lines, two round depressions for the eyes and a third for the mouth.

Terracotta figurines of bulls and humped zebu have been unearthed across Anatolia and into the Indus Valley, all with typically stylised, simplified form, squat legs and large horns. Their function is not known, though some are pierced through the neck or hump, suggesting they may have been fitted to model carts, perhaps serving as toys or else as votives.

With a thermoluminescence test report from Oxford Authentication confirming antiquity.

Largest measuring 10.8 cm x 17.2 cm

  - Near Eastern bronze plaque of the Master of Animals

Near Eastern bronze plaque of the Master of Animals

Luristan. c. 700 BC

Provenance:
Private collection, USA acquired 1990s

Literature:
A cheekpiece from a horse bit depicting a similar subject in the Nasli M Heeramaneck Collection of Ancient Near Eastern and Central Asian Art now on display at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

Description:
Diameter: 6.5 cm

The circular bronze disc decorated in low relief with the Master of the Animals standing in the centre holding an ibex by a rear leg in each hand. The hero is depicted with a long pointed beard and large round eyes. He wears a long belted tunic and thick boots. A repousse beaded border around the edge of the plaque.

Some small losses around the outer border and a small hole above his right foot filled.

  - Amlash terracotta steatopygous female figure

Amlash terracotta steatopygous female figure

Early 1st millennium BC

Provenance:
European private collection, UK and Switzerland, formed in the 1970s and 1980s; Private collection, Switzerland, acquired 2003

Literature:
Comparable examples were included in the Barcelona exhibition of Mediterranean female images from Prehistoric times to the Roman Period, see the catalogue, 'Deesses Diosas Goddesses', 2000, nos. 80 and 81.

Description:
Height: 33 cm

The stylised figure standing with arms folded in beneath the diminutive breasts, the elongated body with grooved spine, exaggerated hips and protruding buttocks tapering to narrow legs. The bulbous head with double pierced ears and tall headdress.

Amlash refers to sites in the province of Gilan, Iran along the Caspian Sea. The culture is renowned for its distinctive ceramic figures and animals.

This comes with a thermoluminescence test report from Oxford Authentication confirming its antiquity.

  - N/A

N/A

Provenance:

Literature:

Description:

  - Gallo-Roman bronze owl plate brooch

Gallo-Roman bronze owl plate brooch

2nd-3rd century AD

Provenance:
From the collection of Alan Harrison, found in North East Lincolnshire.

Literature:

Description:
A cast bronze plate brooch in the form of an owl in profile with head facing, forward. The eyes circled with orange enamel (missing from one eye), the wing forming a cell for red enamel inlay. Striations to the tail, body and wing indicating feathers. Part of the pin and catchplate survive on the reverse.

Dimensions: 2.6 x 2.8 cm

  - Silver fibula in the form of a boar

Silver fibula in the form of a boar

Ibero-Celtic. 4th-3rd century BC

Provenance:

Literature:

Description:
The fibula is cast as a stylised boar, recognisable by its snout and prick ears, both of which are decorated with hanging rings. The central body is ribbed and the rounded hindquarters are also cast with loops from which rings are suspended. The underside of the body is flat with a post at the back to hold the spring and an open U-shaped catchplate below the head which receives the pin.

Length: 4 cm

  - Pair of silver-gilt fibulae with animal head terminals

Pair of silver-gilt fibulae with animal head terminals

Ibero-Celtic. 1st century BC

Provenance:
UK collection

Literature:

Description:
The bow of each fibula is worked with conjoined animal heads with open mouths at either end; these are linked by a rectangular bar decorated on the sides and top with recessed panels surrounded by ribbing. The flattened rod of the foot terminates in another animal head with large ears and a ruff around its neck; this curves forward and rests upon one of the boar heads. The bars of the sprung pins are finished with biconical knopped terminals.

These beautifully-worked fibulae evolved from Middle La Tène types, some of which had symmetrical bows terminating in similar animal heads with open mouths. These were made in the period after 100 BC. The addition of the canine head suggests that these represent a short-hand version of a hunting scene, expressed more fully in the famous group of figural fibulae depicting a mounted horseman with a deer and boar, or simply groups of animals. The treatment of rectangular bars between the animal heads on our fibulae can be paralleled on examples from this group such as that found in a silver hoard at Monsanto de Beira, Portugal.

Length: 3.3 cm

  - Romano-British 'dragonesque' fibula

Romano-British 'dragonesque' fibula

1st century AD

Provenance:
Private collection, York, UK

Literature:
For a discussion on dragonesque brooches, see Catherine Johns, 'The Jewellery of Roman Britain, Celtic and Classical Traditions' (London, 1996) pp. 151-153, 'Dragonesque brooches are an indigenous Romano-British creation, and as such are significant indicators of the cultural interaction of Roman and native.'

Description:
The S shaped brooch terminates in two abstracted heads at either end, each with a large circular eye set within another circle. The broad central area is decorated with eight variously shaped cells to take enamel of which only two of the four central square cells still retain their translucent enamel.

Height: 3.8 cm